The present value of the family's share of the breadwinner's future earnings is considered as Human Life Value, for purposes of life insurance.
Protecting against the risk of losses in one investment by taking up other investment positions that will reduce the risk run by the first commitment. This can mean investing in opposite positions in the same or equivalent stock or markets using complicated packages of futures. Though speculative, hedging is actually a cautious action which sets out to reduce the risk run by the investor.
Provides cover against loss from illness or bodily injury. Can pay for medicine, visits to the doctor, hospital stays, other medical expenses and loss of earnings, depending on the conditions covered and the benefits and choices of treatment available on the policy.